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Neurobiol , , 20 , Brain Res , , , Choline Fig. Lett , , , Neurophysiol , , 89 , Neurobiol , , 53 , Part II. Candidate Gene and Models. Neurosci , , 13 , Psychiatry , , 2 , Psychiatry , , 38 , Neurochem , , 73 , Furthermore, Marutle et al.

Histamine, histamine receptors and antihistamines: new concepts

Neuroanat , , 22 , Psychiatry Rev , , 1 , Bull , , 22 , Neuroanat , , 20 , In regard to the search for peripheral biological markers for schizophrenia, Perl et al. Human and animal model studies Arch. Psychiatry , , 47 , The underlying problem is evident in the inability of people with schizophrenia to adequately filter their response to incoming sensory stimulation, as measured by their inhibitory processing of the P50 auditory evoked potential. The P50 auditory evoked potential is a positive electroencephalographic waveform that occurs 50 msec after presentation of an auditory stimulus.

When pairs of auditory stimuli are presented, with a msec interstimulus interval, schizophrenic patients fail to adequately inhibit the P50 response to the second stimulus. The reduced response to the second stimulus reflects inhibitory processing of the information that may function to protect the individual from being overwhelmed by incoming, repetitive sensory information.

It is known that nicotine transiently normalizes the deficits in P50 auditory evoked potential in schizophrenic patients [ 56 Adler, LE; Hoffer, LJ; Griffith, J; Waldo, MC; Freedman, R Normalization by nicotine of deficient auditory sensory gating in the relatives of schizophrenics Biol. Psychiatry , , 32 , Psychiatry , , , Genetic linkage analysis of deficits in P50 auditory evoked potential in families of patients with schizophrenia has revealed a peak LOD score at 15qq14, and the LOD score was 5.

USA , , 94 , Genet , , 81 , Bull , , 24 , Disord , , 1 , Res , , 60 , Pharmacol , , 74 , Biosci , , 12 , Res , , 27 , Brain Res , , 66 , Neurochem , , 74 , Brain Rev , , 76 , Neurosci , , 11 , Psychiatry , , 49 , Recently, Counts et al.

Neurol , , 64 , In the same study, dysfunction of the basocortical cholinergic projection neurons of the nucleus basalis NB was correlated with cognitive deficits in AD. Very recently, Ikonomovic et al. Neurol , , 66 , Med , , 10 , Chem , , , Neurochem , , 75 , USA , , 48 , Neurosci , , 21 RC , Neurobiol , , 55 , Recently, Dziewczapolski et al.

Neurosci , , 29 , Chem , , 40 , Ther , , , Chem , , 7 , Anabaseine 2- 3-pyridyl -3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine Fig. Neurosci , , 3 , The better known compound anabasine neonicotine; 3- 2-piperidinyl pyridine Fig. Pharmacol , , 47 , Behav , , 57 , Pharmacol , , 65 , DMXB-A was administered to 87 healthy volunteers. Initially, the effects of single doses range, mg were assessed.

The elimination half-life ranged between 0. No serious adverse effects were reported at these doses. At twice daily doses of 75 and mg for 5 days, DMXB-A improved the cognitive function of young adult volunteers. A total of 18 subjects were randomized to receive DMXB-A 25, 75, and mg or a placebo administered three times daily for 5 days with a 10 day washout period between drug-taking periods. Peak plasma levels C max were achieved at DMXB-A showed statistically significant enhancement of three measures of cognitive function attention, working memory, and episodic second memory compared to placebo.

A relationship between exposure to DMBX-A and the magnitude of the cognitive response was apparent, with a maximal effect observed for doses between 75 and mg three times a day. Psychiatry , , 63 , Additionally, the safety and effects of DMXB-A on neurocognition in schizophrenia patients were also evaluated. DMXB-A was administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design to 12 male and female non-smokers with schizophrenia.

DMXB-A was administered orally or 75 mg followed 2 h later by a half dose 75 or DMXB-A also normalized the P50 ratio as well as the test wave amplitude, a more specific measure of inhibition. Thirty-one subjects with schizophrenia received DMXB-A at one of two different doses or a placebo for 4 weeks in a three-arm, two-site, double-blind, crossover phase 2 trial. The doses were those used in the phase 1 trial.

Subjects continued their current antipsychotic drug during the trial and were nonsmokers. Improvement was most notable on the SANS anhedonia and alogia subscales. Neurosci , , 7 , Chem , , 43 , Pharmacol , , 10 , Very recently, researchers at AstraZeneca reported that a furopyridine, 2 ' R -spiro-[1-azabicyclo[2.

Pharmacol , , 78 , Functional assay revealed the partial agonistic nature of AZD Administration of a low dose 0. Within the same dose range, AZD led to a significant increase in cortical dopamine release and improved both conditioned response learning and memory retention in an object recognition task.

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Data Exclusivity. Section V- Generics, Supergenerics, Biologics, biosimilars and bio-betters Generic Drug and Bioequivalence Studies Vaccines Biosimilars Re-innovation in Pharmaceutical Industry: Supergenerics and Biobetters. Section VI- Medical Services Medical Affairs. Section VII- Pharmacovigilance Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Individual Case Safety Reports Development and Periodic Safety Reports Risk Management in Pharmacovigilance Pharmacoeconomics and Healthcare.

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