It became a potent symbol of the Scottish Reform movement. Trees of Liberty were erected in towns across Scotland during the s. Burns has been criticised over his attitude to slavery, primarily because in he had booked passage on a ship to go to Jamaica and work on a slave plantation as a bookkeeper. It is difficult to believe that a poet who wrote so powerfully and movingly about liberty, freedom, injustice and the rights of the common people could ever have contemplated such a move.
In the end, Burns did not actually go to Jamaica and it is likely that a financially bankrupt Burns contemplated the move because he was running away, fearing arrest and imprisonment. In the Scotland of the anti-slavery movement was only beginning to gather momentum, with support not peaking until Burns was also friends with Elizabeth and Stephen Kemble, two of the most prominent actors of the time who held both radical and abolitionist views.
He attended a performance of the anti-slavery play, Inkle and Yarico , at the Globe theatre in Dumfries on 21 October It is clear from the letter that Burns is not just offering advice on the technical and aesthetic merits of the poem but that he supports its anti-slavery sentiments.
"Tam O'Shanter": a Poem by Robert Burns
But what is surely more important is that it is an abolitionist poem. What is more, the black American poet and writer Maya Angelou was a huge admirer of Burns and visited his birthplace on the bicentenary of his birth in Douglass wrote an account of his visit to Alloway which was published in the New York Weekly Tribune. It could be argued that Burns should have been more proactively involved in the anti-slavery movement in Scotland particularly as it gathered momentum after For example, in a letter to Robert Ainslie 3 March Burns boasted, in a dreadful sexist manner, of his sexual prowess with Armour who was heavily pregnant at the time.
Moreover, Burns did not abrogate responsibility for children that he fathered, which was unusual for men in the late 18th century. Moreover, he was by all accounts a very attentive and loving father to his children.
Burns had a progressive attitude to sex for the times, in that he viewed it as something to be enjoyed not just by men but also by women. Conversely, Scottish Presbyterianism in the 18th century criminalised sex outside marriage and the church strongly influenced social norms and behaviour, particularly in rural areas.
Burns was subjected to this humiliating ritual. Women in the 18th century were treated as second class citizens whose primary function was to have and raise children. It is worth recalling that, on the subject of the education of women, Enlightenment philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote:. The education of the women should always be relative to men. To please, to be useful to us, to make us love and esteem them, to educate us when young and take care of us when grown up, to advise, to console us, to render our lives easy and agreeable: these are the duties of women at all times, and what they should be taught in their infancy.
The issue of how Burns would have voted in the Scottish independence referendum in was widely debated in the media and will no doubt resurface if Scottish independence is put to a referendum again in the future. Burns scholar Robert Crawford supposes that he would have supported independence. Anything said here about this is, of course, speculative. However, Liam McIlvanney points out that this was not unusual for radicals of the day. Indeed, militias were were run by committee, not controlled by the government, and elected their own officers, and therefore they were viewed with suspicion by the government.
Like many of the Scots radicals of the time he sought inspiration from William Wallace and Robert the Bruce but, as discussed above, it was the American Revolution and in particular the French Revolution that gave impetus to his passionate desire for radical change. It is difficult to imagine Burns, who was on the side of the poor and vulnerable in society, voting in a referendum to defend the Union. However, his support for independence would be predicated on the basis that it would improve the lives of the poor and vulnerable and, given his anti-war views, that Scotland would not involve itself in the military adventurism that characterised the Pitt government in his day and successive Labour and Conservative governments in recent times.
The last thing that the establishment want is Burns to be closely identified with radicalism. Burns was not perfect. As we noted in relation to women, for example, he could be influenced by the dominant discriminatory ideas of the time. By Burns was seriously ill but did not, as some critics have suggested, recant his radical views.
One of the last people to meet Burns before his death was the reverend James MacDonald. In a manuscript, cited by Burns scholar Robert Crawford, MacDonald reveals that Burns talked to him about his staunch republicanism and radical politics. He is also an activist, retired teacher and a member of the EIS trade union. The revolt was organised and led by the Society of United Irishmen and their charismatic leader Wolfe Tone. The rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British state with estimates of fatalities ranging from 10, to 50, The Pitt government then abolished the Irish Parliament, which had existed since the end of the 13th century, by passing the Irish Act of Union in This resulted in the establishment of the Irish Free State.
The Dagger , however, is accepted by a number of academics as being the work of Burns. See also Devine, b, and Morris, Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.
A poet whose songs were written in the Scottish dialect of English, Burns…. The composer is not definitely known. In English-speaking countries, the first verse and chorus are now closely associated with the New Year festival. In short order many of…. History at your fingertips. Raising Shepherd up to the height of national figure would at long last put a woman among the pantheon of Scottish greats. A strong, confident female voice being celebrated, read and enjoyed at events around the country with predominantly female speakers would be a welcome antidote to the heavily masculine Burns Night with its conspicuous array of male worthies.
Balancing this out would be to the enrichment of both men and women. But while Edinburgh softened itself through Anglicisation, Aberdeen retained its sense of self. There is the linguistic richness of the local Scots dialect that extends across all classes. There are the rich traditions of fiddle music, ballads and bothy ballads, folktales and legends, high literature and street literature, that inform an ongoing strength of identity and creativity here. Shepherd skilfully brings the reader to points of transition and contrast — between hills and sky, modernity and tradition, Scots and English, male and female — walking us through the revelatory landscape, examining it, learning from it.
Burns Nicht is here aince mair. Aa owre this guid green warld, Scots an their sympathisers will pit oan their best tartan breeks, kilts, sashes an bunnets, an heid for a local dinner. We haver on aboot the values o freedom an equality, resistance tae tyranny, an aa that Scotland stauns fir in this tapsalteerie warld.
Then the next-again dey sees us hingin up aa wir tartan duds, pittin wir Scots tongues back intae the press alang wi oor dirks an kilt soaks.
Scotland an aa her Burns-inherited notions safely back in the box unner the bed fir anither year. Burns is cairtin owre muckle a load fir ae single Ayrshire mannie. An a hail nation sae complex an modren as Scotland needs mair nor ae champion. Scotland could dae wi a new poetic hero wha could gie voice tae oor new environmentalist impulse, tae the ambition thats mair common nor ever in Scotland tae heize up women tae truly equal status wi men, an tae appreciate the abundant beauties an discovery open tae us in oor hauf-toom glens.
We already hae sic a hero. Nan Anna Shepherd wis a gey important pairt o the Scottish Reneaissance o the 20th century.
She wis a braw scriever in her ain richt, plus organiser an communicator an kyther o ideas an concepts. She wis an Aiberdeenshire quine, born intae a faimly fae Peterculter an raised at Cults, she wis aye at hame in the north-east, fae her deys studyin intae Aiberdeen University tae her lang career teachin English at the Aiberdeen College.
Her face appears on the fivers fae the Royal Bank o Scotland, an a new biography o her is oot tae. Unlike Burns, Shepherd redded oot maist o the dodgy stuff fae her diaries, editied her ain letters an even pit a wheen o documents tae the fire afore she deid.
The radical Robert Burns – International Socialism
Unlike big Rabbie, then, we dinnae hae aa the interestin, incriminatin opinions o the figure tae chaw through an reinterpret. Sae this braw brankie new symbol o Scottish identity needs a new national nicht. Oor ain ane, no tae replace Burns but tae complement him. A nicht that shaws the warld whit we are aa aboot these deys an wad gie us leave tae stert oor ain traditions. Explorin Shepherd wad be worthwhile as wad gie ilk new generation a chaunce tae read ane o the best, maist compellin an unique voices o the 20th century.
She scrievit poems in baith Scots and English, novels that encompassed life in her north-east hame an celebrated the people, nature an leids that sae define the place, whilst aye haein ae ee on the bigger picture o humanity. Exploring Shepherd wad gie us a chance tae meditate on oor relationship wi nature. This slim buik isnae a chyave tae get through in ae sittin, yet like ane o the rambles Nan taks hersel on, ilk time ye pick it up an hae a read, ye tak new thochts awa, hae new ideas.
Afore her, the Scots launscape was either a romantic harr-happit laun o bonnie stags an loupin saumon or a harsh, wind-bit wastelaun whaur oor ancestors aince scarted oot a livin afore bein torn fae their hames bi greedy lairds an cruel factors.
- The Hippo Signaling Pathway and Cancer.
- Squad V.
- And Slowly Beauty.
- Robert Burns.
- Paranormals: We Are Not Alone.
Shepherd gies us a third wey, whaur ilk human can hae honest communication wi nature an form their ain relations, ootwith aa the fauseness o prejudiced interpretation. Explorin Shepherd wad at lang last pit a female in the pantheon o Scottish greats. But they aa dae it fir ae gender.
Burns Nichts are gey aften heavy on the male spikkers. Haein a Shepherd Nicht whaur maist spikkers were female wad balance this oot. The hail nation o Scotland could turn, through the wark o Shepherd, tae the north-east an fae its deep kist draw forth wirds hauf-forgot in the sooth, an mentalities that were tint lang-syne. Shepherd aye brings us tae a transition; atween the taps o hills an the high blue lift, atween modernity an tradition, Scots an English, male an female, an she walks wi us roon it, examinin it, learnin fae it. She equips us tae deal wi change, an in the current dey, thats nae a bad skill tae hae.
Great Scot! A Burns Night Dinner
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