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Its focus is on maintenance rather than on production. One of the major pillars of TPM is the set of so-called 5S principles. These 5S principles are in fact at the founda- tions of Lean — another buzzword on the Western scene, and an increasingly prominent buzzword in software circles.

These principles are not an option. As Uncle Bob relates in his front matter, good software practice requires such discipline: focus, presence of mind, and thinking. It is not always just about doing, about pushing the factory equipment to pro- duce at the optimal velocity. Knowing where things are — using approaches such as suitable naming — is crucial. Read on in the following chapters. There is an old American saying: A place for everything, and everything in its place.


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A piece of code should be where you expect to find it — and, if not, you should re-factor to get it there. What do the authors here say about littering your code with comments and commented-out code lines that capture history or wishes for the future?

Get rid of them. Do you think this book says anything about having a consistent coding style and set of practices within the group? Where do those standards come from? Read on. Here, we are finally driving to the roots of responsible professionalism in a profession that should be concerned with the life cycle of a product. As we maintain automobiles and other machines under TPM, break- down maintenance — waiting for bugs to surface — is the exception.

Instead, we go up a level: inspect the machines every day and fix wearing parts before they break, or do the equivalent of the proverbial 10,mile oil change to forestall wear and tear. In code, refactor mercilessly. You can improve yet one level further, as the TPM movement inno- vated over 50 years ago: build machines that are more maintainable in the first place. Mak- ing your code readable is as important as making it executable.

The ultimate practice, introduced in TPM circles around , is to focus on introducing entire new machines or www. As Fred Brooks admonishes us, we should probably re-do major soft- ware chunks from scratch every seven years or so to sweep away creeping cruft. There is great power in detail, yet there is something humble and profound about this approach to life, as we might stereotypically expect from any approach that claims Japa- nese roots. But this is not only an Eastern outlook on life; English and American folk wis- dom are full of such admonishments.

Cleanliness is next to godliness. As beautiful as a house is, a messy desk robs it of its splendor. How about Shutsuke in these small matters? He who is faithful in little is faithful in much. A stitch in time saves nine. The early bird catches the worm.

How about calibrat- ing the place of small, individual efforts in a grand whole? Mighty oaks from little acorns grow. Or how about integrating simple preventive work into everyday life? An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

Agile Java: Crafting Code with Test-Driven Development by Jeff Langr

An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Clean code honors the deep roots of wisdom beneath our broader culture, or our culture as it once was, or should be, and can be with attentiveness to detail. Even in the grand architectural literature we find saws that hark back to these sup- posed details. You should name a variable using the same care with which you name a first-born child. As every homeowner knows, such care and ongoing refinement never come to an end.

The Three Laws of TDD (Featuring Kotlin)

The architect Christopher Alexander — father of patterns and pattern languages — views every act of design itself as a small, local act of repair. And he views the craftsmanship of fine structure to be the sole purview of the architect; the larger forms can be left to patterns and their application by the inhabitants.

Design is ever ongoing not only as we add a new room to a house, but as we are attentive to repainting, replacing worn carpets, or upgrad- ing the kitchen sink. Most arts echo analogous sentiments. The French poet Paul Valery advises us that a poem is never done and bears continual rework, and to stop working on it is abandonment. Such preoccupation with detail is common to all endeavors of excellence. We abandon our code early, not because it is done, but because our value system focuses more on outward appearance than on the substance of what we deliver.

Research, neither in industry nor in academia, humbles itself to the lowly station of keeping code clean.

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We want it to be that architecture or programming language or some other high notion should be the cause of quality; as people whose supposed professionalism owes to the mastery of tools and lofty design methods, we feel insulted by the value that those factory- floor machines, the coders, add through the simple consistent application of an indentation style.

To quote my own book of 17 years ago, such style distinguishes excellence from mere competence. The Japanese worldview understands the crucial value of the everyday worker and, more so, of the systems of development that owe to the simple, everyday actions of those workers. Quality is the result of a million selfless acts of care — not just of any great method that descends from the heavens. They are nonetheless the fabric of greatness and, more so, of beauty, in any human endeavor. To ignore them is not yet to be fully human. Of course, 1 am still an advocate of thinking at broader scope, and particularly of the value of architectural approaches rooted in deep domain knowledge and software usability.

This book has a subtler message whose profoundness should not be underappreciated. It fits with the current saw of the really code-based people like Peter Sommerlad, Kevlin Henney and Giovanni Asproni. While we must take care to remember that the interface is the program, and that its structures have much to say about our program structure, it is crucial to continuously adopt the humble stance that the design lives in the code.

And while rework in the manufacturing metaphor leads to cost, rework in design leads to value.

See a Problem?

We should view our code as the beautiful articulation of noble efforts of design — design as a process, not a static endpoint. If you listen to Larry Constan- tine describe coupling and cohesion, he speaks in terms of code — not lofty abstract con- cepts that one might find in UML.

Code is anti-evil, and clean code is perhaps divine. This means being honest to the code, honest to our colleagues about the state of our code and, most of all, being honest with ourselves about our code. Did we re-factor our code before check- ing in? These are not peripheral concerns but concerns that lie squarely in the center of Agile values. To err is human; to forgive, divine.

In Scrum, we make every- thing visible. We air our dirty laundry.

Methods & Processes

We are honest about the state of our code because www. We become more fully human, more worthy of the divine, and closer to that greatness in the details. In our profession, we desperately need all the help we can get. As for this book, it is the best pragmatic application of Lean principles to software I have ever seen in print. It leaves the world a little better than I found it before Uncle Bob sent me the manuscript. Having completed this exercise in lofty insights, I am off to clean my desk. James O. Coplien Mordrup, Denmark www.

Which door represents your team or your company? Why are we in that room? Is this just a normal code review or have we found a stream of horrible problems shortly after going live? Are we debugging in a panic, poring over code that we thought worked? Are customers leaving in droves and managers breathing down xxv www. How can we make sure we wind up behind the right door when the going gets tough? The answer is: craftsmanship. There are two parts to learning craftsmanship: knowledge and work. You must gain the knowledge of principles, patterns, practices, and heuristics that a craftsman knows, and you must also grind that knowledge into your fingers, eyes, and gut by working hard and practicing.

Indeed, the classical mathematics is relatively straightforward.


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  4. Gravity, friction, angular momentum, center of mass, and so forth, can be demonstrated with less than a page full of equations. Given those formulae I could prove to you that bicycle riding is practical and give you all the knowledge you needed to make it work. Coding is no different. Learning to write clean code is hard work. It requires more than just the knowledge of principles and patterns.